Look at the stars, not your feet


Stuff from a girl who loves science and classic rock, but should really stop bringing her dignity to school as she is always losing it.

futurist-foresight:

This robot restuarant in Kunshan, China offers a glimpse into the future.
futurescope:

Robot restaurant where machines cook and serve food to customers
A restaurant in Kunshan, China, employed a team of 15 androids to cook and deliver food. The cute side of the Robocalypse. 

The restaurant has a total of 15 robots in heights of 1.2 meters. Each robot costs 40,000 yuan (6500 US dollars).
As doormen, cooks and waiters, the robots can work continuously for eleven hours after a night charge, and are able to use 40 basic language expressions, such as welcoming sentences to customers.

Singular instance? Nope. There is another restaurant in Harbin, China with 18 robot workers and a fully automated japanese sushi restaurant.
[read more] [photo credit AFP PHOTO / JOHANNES EISELE]
futurist-foresight:

This robot restuarant in Kunshan, China offers a glimpse into the future.
futurescope:

Robot restaurant where machines cook and serve food to customers
A restaurant in Kunshan, China, employed a team of 15 androids to cook and deliver food. The cute side of the Robocalypse. 

The restaurant has a total of 15 robots in heights of 1.2 meters. Each robot costs 40,000 yuan (6500 US dollars).
As doormen, cooks and waiters, the robots can work continuously for eleven hours after a night charge, and are able to use 40 basic language expressions, such as welcoming sentences to customers.

Singular instance? Nope. There is another restaurant in Harbin, China with 18 robot workers and a fully automated japanese sushi restaurant.
[read more] [photo credit AFP PHOTO / JOHANNES EISELE]
exploratorium:

Amoebae use molecular mechanisms to move. Despite their tiny size, they’re giants compared to other types of cells!
neurosciencestuff:

Brain mechanism underlying the recognition of hand gestures develops even when blind
Does a distinctive mechanism work in the brain of congenitally blind individuals when understanding and learning others’ gestures? Or does the same mechanism as with sighted individuals work? Japanese researchers figured out that activated brain regions of congenitally blind individuals and activated brain regions of sighted individuals share common regions when recognizing human hand gestures. They indicated that a region of the neural network that recognizes others’ hand gestures is formed in the same way even without visual information. The findings are discussed in The Journal of Neuroscience.
Our brain mechanism perceives human bodies from inanimate objects and shows a particular response. A part of a region of the “visual cortex” that processes visual information supports this mechanism. Since visual information is largely used in perception, this is reasonable, however, for perception using haptic information and also for the recognition of one’s own gestures, it has been recently learned that the same brain region is activated. It came to be considered that there is a mechanism that is formed regardless of the sensory modalities and recognizes human bodies.
Blind and sighted individuals participated in the study of the research group of Assistant Professor Ryo Kitada of the National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences. With their eyes closed, they were instructed to touch plastic casts of hands, teapots, and toy cars and identify the shape. As it turned out, sighted individuals and blind individuals could make an identification with the same accuracy. Through measuring the activated brain region using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), for plastic casts of hands and not for teapots or toy cars, the research group was able to pinpoint a common activated brain region regardless of visual experience. On another front, it also revealed a region showing signs of activity that is dependent on the duration of the visual experience and it was also learned that this region functions as a supplement when recognizing hand gestures.
As Assistant Professor Ryo Kitada notes, “Many individuals are active in many parts of the society even with the loss of their sight as a child. Developmental psychology has been advancing its doctrine based on sighted individuals. I wish this finding will help us grasp how blind individuals understand and learn about others and be seen as an important step in supporting the development of social skills for blind individuals.”
libutron:

The Endangered Banggai Cardinalfish: A “Lazarus species”
As many other species, the Banggai Cardinalfish is generically called a “Lazarus species” because it was thought to be extinct until found again.
Pterapogon kauderni (Perciformes - Apogonidae) is a marine fish with an extreme small geographic range in the Indonesian Banggai Archipelago. It  was described in 1933, forgotten for some 60 years, and rediscovered in 1991.
Almost overnight it became very popular in the international aquarium pet trade such that a decade after its rediscovery 118,000 wild-caught individuals entered the trade each month, a level that was deemed totally unsustainable, and in its latest IUCN threat assessment in 2007 it met the criteria to be listed as Endangered.
Hence, some authors and conservationists think there may be good reasons to keep rediscoveries quiet, arguing that publicizing the rediscovery of Lazarus species or populations can undermine conservation efforts, especially when the species is highly valued by collectors.
Reference: [1]
Photo credit: ©Erik Schlogl | Locality: off Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
biocanvas:

Rotifers
Rotifers are tiny multicellular organisms found commonly in freshwater environments around the world. They are largely considered to be the smallest animals on Earth, composed of over 1,000 cells complete with a full digestive system and jaws but only reaching the size of a microscopic amoeba. They can be found in the most extreme environments, including the Mojave Desert where they enter dormancy when their habitats dry up. Scientists in Antarctica have recently discovered single cell organisms existing deep below ice sheets, but they’re looking even harden to see if more complex creatures like rotifers have been able to survive without sunlight in sub-zero temperatures for nearly a million years.
Image by Dr. Igor Siwanowicz, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus.
flyingtit:

bogleech:

florafaunagifs:

Leaf bug (Phyllium giganteum)

The constant wobbling as they move is a part of their disguise, making it seem as though the “leaf” is only moving because of a light breeze.
If you blow on one it will also shake around in the hopes of matching any actual surrounding leaves

thats worth 600 bells
flyingtit:

bogleech:

florafaunagifs:

Leaf bug (Phyllium giganteum)

The constant wobbling as they move is a part of their disguise, making it seem as though the “leaf” is only moving because of a light breeze.
If you blow on one it will also shake around in the hopes of matching any actual surrounding leaves

thats worth 600 bells
flyingtit:

bogleech:

florafaunagifs:

Leaf bug (Phyllium giganteum)

The constant wobbling as they move is a part of their disguise, making it seem as though the “leaf” is only moving because of a light breeze.
If you blow on one it will also shake around in the hopes of matching any actual surrounding leaves

thats worth 600 bells
mindblowingscience:

FDA approves new game changing drug to fight melanoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a new immunotherapy drug to treat advanced melanoma, signaling a paradigm shift in the way the deadly skin cancer is treated.




The drug, Keytruda (pembrolizumab), was tested on more than 600 patients who had melanoma that had spread throughout their bodies. Because so many of the patients in the early testing showed significant long-lasting responses, the study was continued and the FDA granted the drug “breakthrough therapy” status, allowing it to be fast-tracked for approval.
The largest Phase 1 study in the history of oncology, the research was conducted at UCLA and 11 other sites in the U.S., Europe and Australia.
Keytruda, formerly known as MK-3475, is an antibody that targets a protein called PD-1 that is expressed by immune cells. The protein puts the immune system’s brakes on, keeping its T cells from recognizing and attacking cancer cells, said Dr. Antoni Ribas, the study’s principal investigator and a professor of medicine in the division of hematology-oncology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.
For many years, when using immunotherapy to fight cancer, doctors’ strategy has been to bolster the immune system so it could kill the cancer cells. But the approach had limited success because PD-1 prevented the immune system from becoming active enough to attack the cancer.
Keytruda, in effect, cuts the brake lines, freeing up the immune system to attack the cancer.
"This drug is a game changer, a very significant advance in the treatment of melanoma," said Ribas, who also is a researcher at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. "For patients who have not responded to prior therapies, this drug now provides a very real chance to shrink their tumors and the hope of a lasting response to treatment."
Judith Gasson, senior associate dean for research at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and director of the Jonsson Cancer Center, said researchers have long hoped to develop an effective and lasting immunotherapy to fight cancer.
"We have long believed that harnessing the power of our own immune systems would dramatically alter cancer treatment," she said. "Based upon work conducted over the past two decades, we are beginning to see the clinical benefits of this research in some of the most challenging cancers."
Generally, about 1 in 10 patients responded to previous immunotherapy drugs. Some of those who responded, however, exhibited long-lived benefits, which sustained scientists’ interest in the method as an effective mechanism to fight cancer.
The response and duration rates for Keytruda were much greater than for previous drugs, Ribas said. In the new study, 72 percent of patients responded to the drug, meaning that their tumors shrank to some degree. Overall, 34 percent of patients showed an objective response, meaning that their tumors shrank by more than 30 percent, and did not re-grow.
Ribas said Keytruda has the potential to be used to treat other cancers that the immune system can recognize, including cancers of the lung, bladder, head and neck.
Survivors’ stories Kathy Thomas, 59, of Torrance, California, was diagnosed in September 2011 with melanoma that had spread to her liver and was invading her left breast. She underwent several therapies that did not work, and she was weakening fast.
"I lost weight. I threw up nearly every day," Thomas said. "My hair was thinning. I just had no strength at all. I was so sick I had to use a wheelchair."
Thomas met with Ribas in 2012 but was skeptical about enrolling in a trial to test an experimental therapy. She soon overcame her hesitation.
"I decided I wanted to survive," she said. "I wasn’t going to let this disease beat me."
Since enrolling in the study, Thomas’ tumors have shrunk. She regained her strength and her appetite. She’s out of her wheelchair and walking normally again. She said she has experienced no side effects from the therapy, and she travels monthly to San Francisco to visit her grandson.
"I just enjoy life now, really enjoy it," she said.
Watch Kathy Thomas discuss her therapeutic experience:http://youtu.be/BOgw7mgQEdc
Tom Stutz, 74, of Sherman Oaks, California, was diagnosed in June 2011 with melanoma that had spread to his lung, liver and other parts of his body. He didn’t see how he could survive, but he decided to enroll in the clinical trial of Keytruda anyway.
"I wasn’t eating. I was on oxygen. I couldn’t walk," he said. "When I went into the hospital at the end of May [2012], I didn’t think I was coming out."
Gradually, though, Stutz started feeling better. Today, he’s no longer on oxygen and walks several miles every day.
"It’s the little things that make me happy now," Stutz said. "I’m very appreciative that I get to get up in the morning, go into my backyard and see my garden. I’m able to be with my children and grandchildren, go on vacations with them. I was close to the end of the road, as far as you can get to the edge of the cliff, and I was pulled back by this treatment."
Watch Tom Stutz discuss his therapeutic experience: http://youtu.be/-HV2W5XrOZY
Melanoma incidence rates have been increasing for at least 30 years. An estimated 76,100 new cases of melanoma will be diagnosed in the U.S. in 2014, and nearly 10,000 Americans will die from the disease this year. While melanoma accounts for less than 2 percent of all skin cancer cases, it is responsible for the vast majority of skin cancer deaths, according to the American Cancer Society.
txchnologist:

Synthetic Cells Move On Their Own
What look like animated illustrations that could easily spring from a child’s imagination are actually newly unveiled artificial cells under a microscope.
Biophysicists at Germany’s Technical University of Munich along with an international team developed simple self-propelled biomachines in a quest to create cell models that display biomechanical functions.
The researchers say their work represents the first time a movable cytoskeleton membrane has been fabricated.
Read More
txchnologist:

Synthetic Cells Move On Their Own
What look like animated illustrations that could easily spring from a child’s imagination are actually newly unveiled artificial cells under a microscope.
Biophysicists at Germany’s Technical University of Munich along with an international team developed simple self-propelled biomachines in a quest to create cell models that display biomechanical functions.
The researchers say their work represents the first time a movable cytoskeleton membrane has been fabricated.
Read More
txchnologist:

Synthetic Cells Move On Their Own
What look like animated illustrations that could easily spring from a child’s imagination are actually newly unveiled artificial cells under a microscope.
Biophysicists at Germany’s Technical University of Munich along with an international team developed simple self-propelled biomachines in a quest to create cell models that display biomechanical functions.
The researchers say their work represents the first time a movable cytoskeleton membrane has been fabricated.
Read More
myampgoesto11:

X-Ray GIFs by Cameron Drake | Behance 
My Amp Goes To 11: Twitter | Instagram
myampgoesto11:

X-Ray GIFs by Cameron Drake | Behance 
My Amp Goes To 11: Twitter | Instagram
myampgoesto11:

X-Ray GIFs by Cameron Drake | Behance 
My Amp Goes To 11: Twitter | Instagram
myampgoesto11:

X-Ray GIFs by Cameron Drake | Behance 
My Amp Goes To 11: Twitter | Instagram
myampgoesto11:

X-Ray GIFs by Cameron Drake | Behance 
My Amp Goes To 11: Twitter | Instagram
dormeistergrey:

jtotheizzoe:

When you think about it, consuming the milk of other animals is a freakin’ weird thing to do. Curdling, flavoring, and aging it in order to make cheese? That’s even weirder. But cheese is delicious, so whether it’s weird or not I have no intention of stopping. How exactly does milk magically morph from liquid to solid?
The origin of cheese, as the legend goes, can be traced to one (un)lucky Middle Eastern shepherd, maybe as far back as 8000 BCE. Journeying across the arid plains and lacking a container to carry his milk in, this shepherd fashioned a canteen out of the stomach of one of his sheep. Later, when he went to take a sip of milk, all he found was curds… the chunky precursor to cheese.

To this day, the cheesemaking process begins in pretty much the same way as it did in 8000 BCE, only instead of relying on offal accidents, we employ some nifty biochemistry. 
To begin its leap toward immortality, milk first has to make the leap out of a cow, sheep, goat, or other grazing animal. Compared to human milk, the milk of these domesticated ruminants is extremely high in protein. For reasons that will become clear shortly, the low protein content of human breast milk is why you can’t make it into cheese, should you be so inclined (although I sincerely hope you are not so inclined).
The reason that milk curdles in ruminant stomachs is because of baby ruminants. Behold the four-chambered ruminant stomach:

When a cow drinks water, or when grazing on hard-to-digest grasses, they engage all four stomachs, but the microbes that live in the top three chambers would create a dangerously unbelchable amount of gas if they were allowed to drink milk. When suckling, calves instead engage a valve that sends the milk directly to the last of their four stomachs, the abomasum.

It is there that the sugar-, fat-, and protein-laden milk curdles, which our friend the shepherd found out the hard way when he used the abomasum for a canteen. Curdling is good for the calf, because as any parent of a newborn will tell you, milk has a tendency to go right through a baby’s digestive system, if you catch my dirty-diaper-drift. Solid milk curds take longer to pass through the digestive system, so more nutrients can be extracted from the milk.
Milk’s main protein, making up more than 80% of the total, is called casein. One particular form of this protein, kappa-casein, is basically the reason that cheese exists at all. Thank you, K-casein, we owe you big-time. 
K-casein isn’t very happy floating around in the aqueous environment of milk, though. Like a shark-attack survivor, it’s a bit hydrophobic. In order to hide from H2O, casein molecules huddle together in globs called micelles, binding up fat and calcium along with it. 

You’ll notice that casein is more than just the globby bits, though. Its tail (a “casein point”?), coated with sugars and hydrophilic amino acids, juts out from those micelles, caging the protein in a water-loving coat and keeping your milk from becoming a curdled mess… that is, until rennet comes along. 
Rennet, the mixture of enzymes added to cheese cultures to start the curdling process, was originally extracted from the stomach linings of young calves, although today it’s manufactured by genetically engineered microbes. One of those enzymes, chymosin, is what does the curdling in both calf stomachs and cheese houses.

Chymosin acts like a molecular pair of scissors, snipping off the water-loving tail of K-casein at a very specific spot (between amino acid 105, a phenylalanine, and 106, a methionine, if you’re a sucker for detail). Without that cage to keep the micelles dissolved in milk’s watery environment, the micelles clump together in massive knots called curds.

What happens to those curds next is an adventure all its own, and every type of cheese has its own well-aged story.
Whether or not the legend of the shepherd is true or just a cheesy myth, one thing is for certain: When it comes to cheese, the stomach isn’t just where cheese ends its journey, it’s also where it begins.
This post accompanies this week’s episode of It’s Okay To Be Smart on YouTube: The Science of Cheese! Watch it here to learn more about cheese-ology:


Don’t really like milk, but cheese is a food god…

bigendernepeta:

revtomdildomolar:

sunflowerlily:

image

what?? piE ? i gotta see this

image

ohhhh it says “piece” not “pie”

wait a second…

image

omfg no

image

MAKE IT STOPAPAPFDG S

image

my anaconda dont

More like can’t

136,512 notes

neurosciencestuff:

Why HIV patients develop dementia

Since the introduction of the combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in the mid-90s, the life expectancy of HIV patients has significantly improved. As a result, long-term complications are becoming more relevant: almost every second HIV patient is affected by neurocognitive disorders, which can lead to dementia. It has not as yet been fully understood how these disorders occur. Researchers from Bochum have now successfully identified mechanisms how infected cells can activate brain-specific immune cells which subsequently display harmful behaviour and lead to the destruction of neurons. These findings may help develop biomarkers to identify risk patients and to make a therapeutic strategy possible in the long term. The study was published in the trade journal “Experimental Neurology”.

Immune cells in the brain under suspicion
“HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders” (HAND) include disorders of the cognitive functions, motor capacities as well as behavioural changes. How exactly HAND occur has not, as yet, been fully understood. “Scientists assume that HIV is harmful to cells directly and that it also triggers indirect mechanisms that lead to nerve cell damage,” explains Dr Simon Faissner (RUB clinic for neurology, St. Josef-Hospital). The researchers strongly suspect that, once activated in the brain and the spinal cord, immune cells keep up a chronic inflammation level which then results in the destruction of nerve cells. An immune activation in peripheral tissue as well as therapeutic consequences may likewise contribute to nerve cell damage in the brain.
First steps of HIV infection are sufficient
The HI virus overcomes the blood-brain barrier hitchhiking on infected immune cells, the monocytes and probably the T cells. The researchers from Bochum tested the hypothesis that HIV-infected monocytes activate specific immune cells in the brain, the so-called microglial cells. These cells, in turn, respond by releasing harmful substances, such as reactive oxygen metabolites and inflammatory signalling molecules, i.e. cytokines. To test this hypothesis, the researchers developed a cell culture system in which they initially examined the effect of HIV-infected monocytes on microglial cells. The researchers simulated the individual steps of HIV infection and measured the concentration of the cytokines released at each stage. Thus, they were able to demonstrate that releasing the viral RNA in the monocytes was a sufficient trigger for maximal microglial activation. Subsequent infection phases – reverse transcription into DNA and the resulting formation of HIV proteins – did not augment activation any further.
Released substances result in neuronal cell death
In the second step, they analysed nerve cells from rat brains to determine if the substances released by the microglial cells could lead to cell death. Compared with the control group, the amount of cell death was indeed twice as high. Studies of liquor cerebrospinalis received from HIV-infected patients have shown a positive correlation with marker of neuronal degeneration in patients who did not as yet present any neurocognitive disorders.
Detailed understanding necessary for therapeutic strategies
“Thanks to our research, we have gained a better understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-associated neurodegeneration,” concludes Prof Dr Andrew Chan. “These results are likely to contribute to HAND biomarkers becoming established. In the long term, these data may be used to develop therapeutic strategies aiming at retarding HAND progression in HIV-infected patients.” Starting points may include activation of microglial cells – a method that is applied in other autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system, for example in multiple sclerosis.
Start-up through FoRUM funds
The research, which was initiated following a collaboration between clinics for neurology and dermatology, St. Josef Hospital, as well as the Department for Molecular and Medical Virology, has been made possible through start-up funding provided by the Faculty of Medicine at Ruhr-Universität (FoRUM). The collaboration has evolved into an international consortium of clinics and basic research organisations in Bochum, Langen, Strasbourg and Mailand. One objective of the follow-up study, for which an application for EU funds is pending, is going to be an in-depth analysis of inflammatory processes in the central nervous system. The researchers will attempt to inhibit inflammatory processes with different drugs. They are, moreover, planning to study direct cell-cell interaction by means of state-of-the-art microscopy, in collaboration with the University of Strasbourg.
(Image credit: Mehau Kulyk/Science Photo Library)
bobbycaputo:

This is the First Photo Ever Taken from Space
Nowadays, anybody with an Internet connection has seen tens if not hundreds of photographs taken from space. Astronauts tweet them, Hubble sends them down… rovers even putter around planets other than our own taking pictures.
But it all started with the photograph above from 1946, the first ever photo taken from space.
The story behind this photo, as told in Air & Space Magazine back in 2006, takes place on October 24th, 1946. A V-2 missile launched from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico used an on-board 35-millimeter motion picture camera to snap this photograph from 65 miles above our heads, capturing the Earth in all its grainy, black-and-white glory and making history at the same time.
(Continue Reading)
fossilera:

One of the most fascinating things about trilobites, their eyes. They were one of the very first animals to the sophisticated eyesight and they evolved many different types of eyes.
Find out more at Trilobites.info
priceofliberty:


3D Printed Spine Saves 12 Year Old Boy in China

Doctors at China’s Peking University Third Hospital have successfully removed a cancerous vertebra from a 12-year old boy and replaced it with a 3D printed implant in a first such procedure worldwide, Forbes reports.
“This is the first use of a 3D-printed vertebra as an implant for orthopedic spine surgery in the world,” said Dr. Liu Zhongjun, director of the Orthopedics Department at the hospital, as quoted by the CBS News.
The boy, referred to as Minghao, was diagnosed with cancer following a football accident. The tumor was located on the second vertebra in his neck. He is reported to be in good condition following a five-hour surgery and is expected to recover quickly.

Read More